Hookah Initial Research

Possible Audience: Customers of Café Hookah Lounge (mostly students) who know Ziad; don’t know a lot about hookah but would still be interested in learning.

HOW IT WORKS
Sources:
http://www.hookahcompany.com/how_does_a_hookah_work.htm
and interview with Ziad

-Vase is filled with water
-Shisha goes into bowl
-Bowl covered with foil
-Hot coals placed on top, causes tobacco to heat up and smoke
-Sucking on hose draws heat
-Smoke drawn down stem and underwater
-It then rises up and into the hose port opening

*the release valve clears out stagnate smoke and keeps hookah airtight when smoke is being inhaled

HISTORY & SPREAD
Sources: http://www.hookahcompany.com/hookah_history.htm
– Began in north western provinces of India along border of Pakistan in Rajasthan and Gujarat nearly a millennia back. Hookahs were usually made from coconut shell base and tube with a head attached.
– Moved through Persian Kingdom (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Middle Asia, Arah parts of Northern Africa. Aquired “tombeik” = dark tobacco grown in Iran. Coal placed directly onto it – stronger flavor
– Hookahs designed in Persian Empire were handcrafted out of a piece of wood.
– 500 years ago spread to Turkey – popular among upper class and intellectuals, the design changed – grew in size and complexity – more like it is today. Brass and glass used and less wood, paintings and mosaics added for beauty.
– Hookah bars opened two to three centuries ago in Turkey
– Spread to Lebanon and Syria, then Egypt, Morocco
– Some countries hookah bars are for men only, in others hookah is totally forbidden
– Has become more popular in U.S. and Europe since the 60’s, and it now becoming more popular in Japan
– TURKEY: Called a “Nargile”. Very important in coffee shop culture, become popular during time of Murat the IV’th in 1623-1640. Rules were created for lighting the pipe and all pieces were made by special craftsmen – floral motifs, some made of silver or crystal, mouthpieces made with amber (http://www.thehookah.com/history/hookah_history_1.htm)
– “Smoking a nargile is nothing like smoking a cigarette,” a 71-year-old pensioner named Ismet Ertep said as he looked up from his pipe.”Cigarettes are for nervous people, competitive people, people on the run,” he said. “When you smoke a nargile, you have time to think. It teaches you patience and tolerance, and gives you an appreciation of good company. Nargile smokers have a much more balanced approach to life than cigarette smokers.”
– Used to be status symbol – 19th & 20th centuries. wives liked to use it to entertain (afternoon tea/intellectual gatherings) and would like to be pictured with it when possible. Women stayed in the home, and enjoyed smoking together – not cigarettes because those were for people on the go.
– “Nargiles soon became important status symbols. Offering one to a guest became an important sign of trust, and withholding it could be taken as a serious insult. In 1841, a diplomatic crisis broke out between France and the Ottoman Empire after the sultan declined to offer the French ambassador a chance to smoke with him.” (http://www.thehookah.com/history/hookah_history_3.htm)

SHISHA:
Sources: http://johwal.wrytestuff.com/swa107253.htm
http://www.shishapipe.net/history.htm
– Comes from Persian word “shisheh” meaning glass
– Two types: Ajami & Massai.
Ajami – pure tobacco leaves and more expensive
Massai – soaked in water for ten minutes & made of tobacco, honey, fruit, molasses
– Shisha (also referred to as Tombac, Gouza, Moassel or Sheesha) was and still is the premier choice of Hookah smokers around the globe
– Blend of dark Shisha leaves, fruit pulp, molasses or honey, and glycerin contains only 0.5% nicotine and no tar.
– Classic favorites like melon, Mango, French Vanilla and Tropical Pine will always have a loyal following.
– Many Hookah smokers will occasionally opt to add ice, fruit juice, milk, or even wine to the water in the glass base to alter the texture, taste or effect of the smoke.

Culture/Experience:
Sources: http://www.hookah-shisha.com/store/pc/viewArticle.asp?articleId=5&CtgId=2
-“The art of preparing the hookah bowl, the sharing of personal and traditional techniques, the careful and delicate maintenance of the hookah coals one must observe, the miracle of physics that come together to make the prefect hookah smoke, the company – all elements that make hookah smoking more than just a novelty but in fact a traditional pastime that breeches cultural differences in peaceful harmony. “
-To some, hookahs and shisha tobacco can be admired and respected in the same way one would admire a fine wine. To many, there is no better expression of style and festivity than one experiences with friends, family, and hookah.
ETIQUETTE
Sources: http://hookahreviews.net/hookah101/hookah-etiquette/
– Never light your cigarette or cigar using the charcoal on top of the hookah, this is considered disrespectful.
– Hookahs are meant to be placed on the ground when used, if placed on a table they can easily tip over and creates a fire hazard.
– Use and Pass the hookah hose with your right hand only, using your left hand is considered unclean in many cultures and countries.
– Only use flavored tobacco (shisha) when smoking out of your hookah.
– The person that loaded the hookah bowl always gets the first smoke.
– Never point the end of the hose at another person, this is considered an insult in the Arab world.
– To indicate that you are done with your hookah, wrap the hose around the base of the hookah, never just set it down.

HOOKAH AND STUDENTS TODAY:
Sources: http://www.cigarettesflavours.com/hookah-smoking/hookah-culture-becomes-highly-popular-among-american-youngsters/
-Researchers conducted a survey on 3,770 students at eight North Carolina colleges and universities to analyze their smoking habits. The research of the survey revealed that 40% of the students smoked tobacco from a hookah, while nearly 47% smoked a cigarette.
-Nearly 22% of the students said that they have smoked hookah but had never smoked a cigarette. The survey concluded that most of the hookah smokers do not shift to other products such as cigarettes, cigars or smokeless tobacco.
http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/healthday/651661.html
– Nearly one-fifth of U.S. college students who took part in a survey regularly use hookahs (water pipes), and many of them mistakenly believe that hookah smoking is safer than cigarette smoking.
– The Internet-based survey sent to a random sample of students at eight North Carolina colleges and universities found that 40.3 percent reported having ever smoked tobacco from a hookah, nearly as many students (46.6 percent) who said they had ever smoked a cigarette. Nearly 25 percent of respondents said they were current users of cigarettes and 17.4 percent said they were current users of hookahs.
– The investigators found that among those most likely to use hookahs were first-year students and males.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110405113022.htm

HEALTH CONCERNS
Sources: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110405113022.htm
-While research about hookah smoking is still emerging, evidence shows that it poses many of the same dangers that smoking cigarettes does. Among those dangers, hookah smoke contains high levels of toxic compounds, including tar, carbon monoxide, heavy metals and cancer-causing chemicals. In fact, smoking from a hookah exposes an individual to more carbon monoxide and smoke than cigarette smokers are exposed to. Hookah smoking also delivers about the same amount of nicotine as cigarette smoking does, which could lead to tobacco dependence. Health effects include lung cancer, respiratory illness, low birth-weight (among infants whose mothers smoked hookah during pregnancy) and periodontal disease.
“This study highlights hookah smoking as a considerable public health concern, especially among young adults,” Sutfin said. “Going forward, we need to develop interventions to address this risky behavior.”

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